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Career Clusters, A Bridge Between Education and Career Planning
Since 1960s, career cluster resources have been used as career exploration and planning tools in schools, learning communities, and organizations across the nation. Career Clusters is a system that matches educational and career planning.
Step 1: Identifying Career Cluster Interest Areas
Career clusters are groups of similar occupations and industries. When teachers, counselors, and parents work with teens, college students, and adults, the first step is to complete career cluster assessment. The assessment identifies the highest career cluster areas. Career assessments show teens, college students, and adults rankings from one of the following 16 Interests Areas or Clusters:
Step 2: Exploring Career Clusters and Related Careers
After pinpointing the highest career clusters, teens, college students, and adults explore the different careers and create education plans. Career cluster tools used in career and educational planning include:
LISA: A comprehensive career cluster database
High school plan of study
Interest and Skills Areas
After completing a career cluster assessment, teens, college students, and adults look at web sites, career models, brochures, pathways, and high school plans. One of the most unique comprehensive career cluster resources is the Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), an Internet program. LISA lets you explore career clusters, careers, abilities, training requirements, and more. There are 3 steps in the LISA program:
STEP 1: Click here to select a Career Cluster STEP 2: Click here to select a Career Group STEP 3: Explore Occupations within this Career Group
In Step 1, when you choose a career cluster, you will see a description of the cluster. When you select a career group in Step 2, you see different careers. Finally, in Step 3, you see a wealth of information:
Educational and training requirements
Crosswalks, for example ONET, DOT, GOE, and other codes
Labor Market Information
Even though LISA is an awesome program, in classroom or workshop settings, you need printed materials. When using printed materials, the career model is the best place to start. Models provide excellent overviews listing the cluster definitions, sample careers, pathways, knowledge, and skills. Visual models show career clusters, the cluster subgroups, and related careers. Models are an excellent way to introduce career clusters.
For presentations, workshops, and group discussions, the career cluster brochures provide additional information. Adults and teens read about the different careers that are available in each career cluster. Teachers, counselors, and parents use the brochures to solidify adults’ and teens’ potential career or educational decisions. The brochures cover topics such as:
Definition of career clusters
Teachers, counselors, and parents use career pathways for more detailed information. The career pathways are subgroups or areas of concentration within career clusters. Each pathway contains career groups. The career groups have similar academic skills, technical skills, educational requirements, and training requirements. Career pathways are plans of study that outline required secondary courses, post secondary courses, and related careers. The career pathways are essential tools that teachers, counselors, parents, and other adults use to give educational planning advice.
Several web sites feature High School Plans of Study. These study plans show required, elective, and suggested courses for each grade level. The school plans also match the career clusters to related careers, career pathways, and post-secondary options. Teachers, counselors, and parents find that these school plans are guides for selecting the right high school courses to match potential careers. Beyond high school, the Utah System for Higher Education has created a College Major Guide. Parents, teachers, and counselors can use the guide to match college majors to Certificate and Degree Programs.
Additional Resources for Counselors and Teachers
For planning curriculum and educational programs, there are detailed Knowledge and Skills Charts and Cluster Crosswalks. The knowledge and Skills expand upon the information listed on the career cluster models. For each knowledge and skill area, there are performance elements and measurement criteria. Crosswalks show the relationships between career clusters and other career models:
Career clusters build a bridge between education and career planning. Different types of career cluster resources are available: videos, web sites, booklets, brochures, activity sheets, and workbooks. Teachers, counselors, and parents use career cluster resources to successfully complete career and educational planning.
American Careers Career Paths, Career Communications, 6701 W. 64th St., Overland, KS 66202
Career Click, Illinois Department of Employment Security,33 South State Street, Chicago, IL 60603
CIP Code Index by Career Cluster, Adult & Postsecondary CTE Division, Bureau of Career and Technical Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126
Cluster and Career Videos, Career One Stop, U.S. Department of Labor, Frances Perkins Building, 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210, 866-4-USA-DOL
College Major Guide Utah System for Higher Education, Board of Regents Building, The Gateway, 60 South 400 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1284
Find Careers (Videos), iSeek Solutions, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities, Wells Fargo Place, 30 7th St. E., Suite 350, St. Paul, MN 55101-7804
High School Plans of Study, New Hampshire Department of Education, 101 Pleasant Street Concord, NH 03301-3860
Introduction to Career Clusters, Career Education, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, P.O. Box 543 Blacklick, OH 43004-0544
Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), customized Internet version of OSCAR, a product of the Texas Workforce Commission/Career Development Resources, TWC/CDR, Austin, TX 78753
Maryland Career Clusters, Maryland State Department of Education 200 West Baltimore Street Baltimore, MD 21201
Rhodes Island’s Career Clusters, Rhode Island’s Career Resource Network, 1511 Pontiac Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920
School to Career Clusters, State of Connecticut, Department of Labor, Job Bank, 645 South Main Street, Middletown, CT 06457
States’ Career Clusters Initiative (SCCI), 1500 W. Seventh Avenue, Stillwater, OK 74074 Career Pathway Plans, Career Cluster, Knowledge and Skills Charts
What are Career Clusters? Career Prospects System, New Mexico Career Resource Network, CAREER TECHNICAL AND WORKFORCE EDUCATION BUREAU (CTWEB), Education Building, 300 Don Gaspar, Santa Fe, NM 87501
Written by: Dr. Mary Askew Copyright 2007 Dr. Mary Askew All Rights Reserved
Career Clusters Close the Gap Between Schools Subjects and Careers
A wealth of information exists that explains the relationships between school subjects and careers. Across the nation, children, teens, teachers, and counselors use Career Interests Areas or Clusters to explore careers and to make school study plans. There are sixteen (16) Interests Areas or Clusters:
Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources
Architecture & Construction
Arts, A/V Technology & Communication
Business, Management & Administration
Education & Training
Government & Public Administration
Hospitality & Tourism
Law, Public Safety & Security
Marketing, Sales & Service
Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics
Transportation, Distribution & Logistics
States and federal agencies across the nation have created career cluster web sites and resources. We have reviewed three (3) of the best state or federal agency web sites.
Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA)
One of the most unique comprehensive career cluster resources is the Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), an Internet program. LISA lets you explore career clusters, careers, abilities, training requirements, and more. Using the Lisa, you can do the following tasks:
Assessment: Explore career options using the Work Importance Locator.
I Enjoy: Find careers based upon the things that you enjoy.
Cluster: Find careers from Career Cluster Groups.
Search: Search for jobs based on knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Best Match: Use your current job to find knowledge, skills, and abilities to identify a new career.
Compare: Compare current job to potential new job.
Profile: Use this feature to create a profile from a selected career.
There are 3 steps in the LISA program. In Step 1, when you choose a career cluster, you will read the description of the cluster. When you select a career cluster in Step 2, you can select a career group. In each career group, you will see a lot of different careers. Finally, in Step 3, you see additional occupational information, such as:
Educational and training requirements
Crosswalks, for example ONET, DOT, GOE, and other codes
Labor Market Information
There is detailed information in each job profile:
Occupational Characteristics Narrative
The Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA) is an excellent tool for students to do career cluster exploration.
NCE Career Clusters and State Career Clusters Initiative Resources
The NCE Career Clusters has adapted information from the State Career Clusters Initiative to create a career education toolkit for teachers and counselors. In your NCE Career Clusters toolkit, you can find a Career Cluster Model, poster, resource booklets, At-a-Glance PDF Slices, and Plans of Study. Each resource is designed to facilitate the exploration of Career Clusters.
Career Cluster Resource Booklet
To prepare for a Career Clusters discussion, teachers and counselors use the State Career Clusters Initiative Career Cluster Resource Booklet. The brochures discuss the differences between career clusters and career pathways. The booklet outlines that career clusters are career groups from the same industry that have the same skills and educational requirements. Career pathways are specific careers that are within the each career cluster. The Resource Booklet discusses the following topics:
Historical background information
Cluster Knowledge and Skills
Pathway Knowledge and Skills
O*NET Crosswalk Report
The booklet is a "must-read" resource that provides in depth information on each career cluster. Each booklet has detailed graphs, charts, and tables.
Career Cluster Model
To provide an overview of Career Clusters, teachers and counselors use the Career Cluster Model. The Career Cluster Model simplifies sixteen (16) Career Clusters model. The center of the NCE Career Clusters model focuses on six (6) major groups. The career clusters are color-coded so that you can easily present six (6) major groups in classroom activities. The six (6) major groups are:
Environmental and Agricultural Systems
Business, Marketing, and Management
Communication and Information Systems
Industrial, Manufacturing, Engineering Systems
Human Services and Resources
Here is summary of the relationship between the sixteen (16) Career Clusters and the 6 Super Clusters.
Environmental and Agricultural Systems - Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources (1)
Business, Marketing, and Management combines:
Business, Management & Administration (4)
Hospitality & Tourism (9)
Marketing, Sales & Service (14)
Communication and Information Systems involve:
Arts, A/V Technology & Communication (3)
Information Technology (11)
Industrial, Manufacturing, Engineering Systems include:
The sixteen (16) Career Clusters systematically fit within the six (6) major groups.
Career Cluster Brochure
Another excellent career cluster student aid is the Career Cluster Brochure. The brochure is filled with photographs that show people performing the different jobs. With this easy-to-read booklet, students get an overview of the different careers, career clusters, and career pathways. Students read about:
What is a career cluster?
What is a career pathway?
What school subjects are important for a career in the ... career cluster?
What is the educational or training requirement for a career in the ... career cluster?
What are the necessary credentials for a career in the ... career cluster?
What is the employment outlook for a career in the ... career cluster?
What are some sample occupations?
Career Cluster Slices
Besides the Career Cluster Model and the Brochure, a third student Career Cluster aid is the NCE Career Cluster Slices. The NCE Career Cluster Slice identifies specific career opportunities found within each Career Pathways. Each Cluster Slice is illustrated and designed to explore areas, such as:
Cluster Knowledge & Skills
Preparation for a Career in ...
Examples of Education and Training Postsecondary Programs of Study
Students discover that each pathways leads to post-secondary options including:
Associate's Degree Programs
Bachelor's Degree Programs
Master's Degree Programs
Doctoral Degree Programs
Professional Degree Programs
Career Clusters Plan of Study
At the beginning of the students' middle school years, the students use assessments identify career cluster interest areas. With the Career Clusters model, brochure, Slices, and LISA resources, the students have explored the different careers and post-secondary training options. Students, teachers, counselors, and parents then use the Career Clusters Plan of Study to strategically plan the students' high school course work. The Career Clusters Plan of Study provides examples of English, Math, Science, Social Studies, electives, and extra-curricular activities for the following grade levels:
7th - 8th grade
9th - 10th grade
11th - 12th grade
Advanced coursework for postsecondary credit
The NCE Career Clusters web page is the gateway to the student career cluster resources.
State Career Clusters Initiative, NCE, and Lisa materials are just examples of career cluster resources. Career clusters resources have established a connection between school subjects and careers.
Resources:Explore Career Clusters, Texas Workforce Commission/Career Development Resources (TWC/CDR), US Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, and Louisiana Department of Labor
Nebraska Career Education, States' Career Clusters Initiative, 2005, and NCTEF/NASDCTEc (National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium) States' Career Clusters Initiative, & National Association of State Directors of Career and Technical Education Consortium
State Career Clusters Initiative Washington, DC: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2002
Written by: Dr. Mary Askew Copyright 2007 Dr. Mary Askew All Rights Reserved
Elementary School Teachers, Counselors, and Career Education
As teachers and counselors, you know that the elementary school years are important. During the elementary school years, your students build visions of what they desire to do in their lives as they contribute to the workforce. With your help, your students remain open to new career ideas and possibilities. As you work with your students, your students do not make premature career choices or career preparations. For your students, elementary school is a time to build awareness.
As elementary school teachers and counselors, you use career education to promote self-worth, skill development, and decision making strategies. Your activities are designed to build self, family, school, community, and career awareness. You use age-appropriate materials that match your students' developmental levels. These activities expose your students to a variety of different jobs, career information sources, and the reasons why people work.
When you prepare to develop age-appropriate materials products, tests and tools, you use career models like the National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG). The National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG) have domains, goals, and indicators. Each domain represents a developmental area. Under each domain, there are goals or competencies. For each goal, indicators highlight the knowledge and skills needed to achieve the goal. The National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG) prepares you to make materials that are suitable for your students.
As a elementary school counselors and teachers, you create individual career plans and portfolios. Individual career plans (ICP) -
Identify initial career goals and educational plans
Increase employability and decision making skills
Individual career portfolios summarize career awareness activities and experiences that occur during the school year. In addition to individual career plans and portfolios, you use a variety of resources –
All of the career activities and tools combine academic work with career pathways. Career activities serve as foundations for future skills. As teachers and counselors, you help students build connections between academics and real life situations. You use career education activities to stress the importance of language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science.
You show students that Language Arts have many uses in the work force:
You provide examples that show how people solve problems when they use Mathematics. Different types of Mathematics include:
In Social Studies, your students learn how skills that are necessary to be successful in the global marketplace. In Social Studies, your students learn about -
Your students learn the importance of Science gaining skills to solve problems. You show your students how applications of Science are used in different industries, such as -
The connections between academics and real life situations reinforce, develop, and expand previously learned skills. In summary, as a elementary school teachers and counselors, you help students:
Know and value self
Build self-esteem and confidence
Learn and apply the academic material
Identify interests and build relationships between the school environment and the work force
Build academic, communication, problem solving, and social skills
Increase awareness of the need for future jobs skills
See the connections between learning in school, academic skills, job related skills, and careers
See career possibilities
See themselves as a future contributor to the job force
As counselors and teachers, you build self-awareness, family awareness, school awareness, community awareness, career/ work awareness, attitude development, skill development, decision making strategies, and self-worth. You use age-appropriate materials that match the developmental levels of the students. Examples of activities include career activities, individual career plans (ICP), individual career portfolios, career days, career fairs, field trips, information interviewing, and library book reports.
After completing career education activities, your students are prone to get higher grades, academic achievement, school involvement, and interpersonal skills. In addition, your students are more adept to complete more complex courses and have higher graduation rates from high school. As your students get older, they will achieve their career visions and goals.
1. American Counseling Association, Office of Public Policy and Legislation. (2007). Effectiveness of School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: Author.
2. Angel, N. Faye; Mooney, Marianne. (1996, December). Work-in-Progress: Career and Work Education for Elementary Students. (ED404516). Cincinnati, OH: Paper presented at the American Vocational Association Convention.
3. Benning, Cathleen; Bergt, Richard; Sausaman, Pamela. (2003, May). Improving Student Awareness of Careers through a Variety of Strategies. Thesis: Action Research Project. (ED481018). Chicago, Illinois: Saint Xavier University.
4. Career Tec. (2000). K-12 Career Awareness & Development Sequence [with Appendices, Executive and Implementation Guide]. (ED450219) .Springfield, Il: Author.
5. Carey, John. (2003, January). What are the Expected Benefits Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive Guidance Program. School counseling Research Brief 1.1. Amherst, MA: Fredrickson Center for School Counseling Outcome Research.
6. Dare, Donna E.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn. (1999, September). Career Guidance Resource Guide for Elementary and Middle/Junior High School Educators. (ED434216). Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
7. DuVall, Patricia. (1995).Let's Get Serious about Career Education for Elementary Students. AACE Bonus Briefs. (ED386603). Hermosa Beach, CA: AACE Bonus Briefs.
8. Ediger, Marlow. (2000, July). Vocational Education in the Elementary School. (ED442979) Opinion Papers
9. Gerver, Miriam, Shanley, Judy, O Cummings, Mindee. (2/14/02). Answering the Question EMSTAC Extra Elementary and Middle Schools. Washington, DC: Technical Assistance Center, (EMSTAC).
10. Hurley, Dan, Ed.; Thorp, Jim, Ed. (2002, May). Decisions without Direction: Career Guidance and Decision-Making among American Youth. (ED465895). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Ferris State University Career Institute for Education and Workforce Development.
11. Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn; Dare, Donna E. (1997,December).Career Guidance for Elementary and Middle School Students. Office of Student Services Brief, v9 n1. (ED415353). Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
12. Ohio Department of Education, Division of Vocational and Career Education, Ohio Career Development Blueprint, Individual Career Plan, K to 5 (ED449322). Columbus, Ohio, 2000
13. Splete, Howard; Stewart, Amy. (1990). Competency-Based Career Development Strategies and the National Career Development Guidelines. Information Series No. 345. (ED327739). Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse on Education and Training for Employment & Ohio State University
14. U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education. (1994, 2004). National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG). Washington, DC: Author.
15. Williams, Jean A., Ed. (1999, January). Elementary Career Awareness Guide: A Resource for Elementary School Counselors and Teachers. (ED445293). Raleigh, NC: NC Department of Public Instruction, NC Job Ready.
16. Woal, S. Theodore. (1995). Career Education--The Early Years. AACE Bonus Briefs. (ED386603). Hermosa Beach, CA: AACE Bonus Briefs.
Teachers and Counselors, Help Your Students Become Career Explorers
As teachers and counselors, you help students explore careers. You aid your students as they search for meaning, purpose, and direction. You see their talents. You know their interests, abilities, and skills. You help students plan for the future.
You understand students. You know that students -
Love colorful, multimedia presentations
Use their senses and imaginations in career exploration
You have searched for tools that will help you unlock their potentials.
Tips for Finding the Right Career Tool
Career tools help your students explore who they really are. Career tools include career self assessment tests, games, web sites, and books. Career tests answer the question "Who am I?" Career assessments point out your students' likes, dislikes, or interests. Kid career tools should be fun, educational, and not boring.
Search for the resource that meets your students' needs. Look at the benefits. Find tests, assessments, games, web sites, and books that are -
Easy to use
Full of resources
With the right resource, students are ready and willing to -
Enjoy discovering who they are
Gain knowledge, wisdom, and understanding
An effective career tool motivates your students to explore careers. Creative career tools build a foundation for more detailed career exploration.
Step One: Select a Career Test
How do you choose the right career tests? Look at 3 major areas -
Format, e.g. Printed, CD-ROM, or on-line
Cost -$10, $12, $15, $20 or more
Resources - Information on interests, skills, and careers
When you look at a career test, ask yourself the following questions -
What do your students prefer? Printed or on-line career test?
What is your budget for the tests?
What resources do you have? Do you have a computer lab?
Find career tests that your students are interested in and that provide valuable information about careers and your student's interests. Look at career tests that use well-known career models. Match students' interest clusters to career or job codes. Use newer color-coded career tests that simply career models. The use of colors improves attention span, concentration, memory skills, and understanding. As students grow older, continue to use career models expand their knowledge of careers and college majors. There are a variety of career tests for elementary school students, youth, college students, and adults.
Step Two: Explore Career Web Sites and Books
Career tests prepare students to explore careers. Gather information about fun, informative, and attractive career exploration web sites and books. Look for web sites and books that provide career information about -
Examples of kid career exploration web sites and books are -
Career exploration is a process. As teachers and counselors, use resources that make your journey enjoyable, educational, and effective. Plan successful kid career exploration expeditions.
Written by: Dr. Mary Askew Copyright 2007 Dr. Mary Askew All Rights Reserved
Top Career Web Sites for Children and Teens
Career assessments and tests help you explore who you. Career books and web sites give you a glimpse of the world of work. Free career information is available on web sites. Some writers have written facts for children and teens. We would like to share some information with you. These web sites use graphics, multimedia presentations, activities, and other techniques to expand our knowledge of careers. We have written information on seventeen (17) web sites and five (5) book series.
Here are the four different types of exploring careers web sites:
Curriculum web sites provide activities, tests, guidelines, as well as career information.
Resource One: Career Cruiser Source: Florida Department of Education
The Career Cruiser is a career exploration guidebook for middle school students. The Career Cruiser has self assessment activities to match personal interests to careers. The Career Cruiser has information on Holland Codes. Careers are grouped into 16 career clusters. The Career Cruiser has information on occupational descriptions, average earnings, and minimum educational level required for the job.
Teacher's Guide is also available.
Resource Two: Elementary Core Career Connection Source: Utah State Office of Education
The Core Career Connections is a collection of instructional activities, K to 6, and 7 to 8, designed by teachers, counselors, and parents. Each grade level has instructional activities that align directly with the Utah State Core. This instructional resource provides a framework for teachers, counselors, and parents to integrate career awareness with the elementary and middle level grade students.
Career Information Web Sites
Some web sites provide excellent career information. Some web sites list facts about job tasks, wages, career outlook, interests, education, and more.
Resource Three: Career Voyages Source: U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Education
The Career Voyages web site is a Career Exploration web site for Elementary School students. The Career Voyages web site has information about the following industries:
Aerospace and the "BioGeoNano" Technologies
Resource Four: Career Ship Source: New York State Department of Labor
Career Ship is a free online career exploration tool for middle and high school students. Career Ship uses Holland Codes and the O*NET Career Exploration Tools. For each career, Career Ship provides the following information:
Career Ship is a product of Mapping Your Future, a public service web site providing career, college, financial aid, and financial literacy information and services.
RESOURCE FIVE: Career Zone Source: New York State Department of Labor
Career Zone is a career exploration and planning system. Career Zone has an assessment activity that identifies Holland Codes. Career Zone provides information on 900 careers from the new O*NET Database, the latest labor market information from the NYS Department of Labor and interactive career portfolios for middle and high school students that connect to the NYS Education Department Career Plan initiative. Career Zone has links to college exploration and planning resources, 300 career videos, resume builder, reference list maker, and cover letter application.
Resource Six: Destination 2020 Source: Canada Career Consortium
Destination 2020 helps youth discover how everyday tasks can help them build skills they will need to face the many challenges of the workforce.
Skills are linked to:
Other School Activities
Play Activities At Home
Work at Home
Through quizzes, activities and articles, they might actually find some answers or, at least, a direction about their future. There are more than 200 profiles of real people who are describing what a day at work is like for them.
Resource Seven: What Do You Like Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
What Do You Like is the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Career web site for kids. The web site provides career information for students in Grades 4 to 8. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, most of the material on the site has been adapted from the Bureau's Occupational Outlook Handbook,a career guidance publication for adults and upper level high school students that describes the job duties, working conditions, training requirements, earnings levels, and employment prospects of hundreds of occupations. Careers are matched to interests and hobbies. In the Teacher's Guide, there are twelve categories and their corresponding occupations.
Science Career Clusters
Some organizations have created web sites that feature science careers.
Resource Eight: EEK! Get a Job Environmental Education for Kids Source: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Eek! Get a Job Environmental Education for Kids is an electronic magazine for kids in grades 4 to 8. Eek! Get a Job provides information about:
There is a job description for each career, a list of job activities, suggested activities to begin exploring careers, and needed job skills.
Resource Nine: GetTech.org Source: National Association of Manufacturers, Center for Workforce Success, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S Department of Labor
GetTech.org is a educational web site that provides CAREER EXPLORATION information. GetTech.org has information about the following industries:
Engineering and Industrial Technology
Biotechnology and Chemistry
Health and Medicine
Arts & Design
Within each area, there are examples of careers.
Each career profile gives:
Number of people employed to job
Number of jobs available in the future
Place of work
Level of education required
Location of training programs: University Pharmacy Programs
There is a GetTech.org Teacher's Guide.
Resource Ten: LifeWorks Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education
LifeWorks is a career exploration web site for middle and high school students. LifeWorks has information on more than 100 medical science and health careers. For each career, LifeWorks has the following information:
True stories of people who do the different jobs
LifeWorks has a Career Finder that allows you to search by Name of Job, Interest Area, Education Required, or Salary.
Resource Eleven: San Diego Zoo Job Profiles for Kids Source: San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo Job Profiles discussed jobs for people who:
Work with animals
Work with plants
Work with science and conservation
Work with people
Work that helps run the Zoo and Park
There are activities listed under each area, for example:
What we do
What is cool about this job
How this job helps animals
How to get a job like this
Practice Being a ...
How to Become a ...
Resource Twelve: Scientists in Action! Source: U.S. Department of the Interior
Scientists in Action features summaries of the lives of people involved in careers in the natural sciences:
Mapping the planets
Sampling the ocean floor
Forecasting volcanic eruptions
Resource Thirteen: Want To Be a Scientist? Source: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of the Agriculture
Want To Be a Scientist is a career exploration web site for kids about 8 to 13 years old. Want To Be a Scientist has a series of job descriptions, stories, and other resources about what scientists do here at the ARS.
These stories include information about:
Specific Science Careers
The last group of web sites is dedicated to providing information on specific science careers, for example veterinarians,
Resource Fourteen: About Veterinarians Source: American Veterinary Medical Association
About Veterinarians has facts about:
What is a Veterinarian?
Becoming a Veterinarian
Making a Career Decision
What Personal Abilities Does a Veterinarian Need?
What Are the Pluses and Minuses of a Veterinary Career?
After Graduation From Veterinary School
Where Most Schools Are Located
About School Accreditation
The Phases of Professional Study
The Clinical Curriculum
The Academic Experience
Roles of Veterinarians
Teaching and Research
The Advantage of Specializing
Greatest Potential Growth Areas
Other Professional Directions
AVMA Veterinary Career Center
Becoming a Veterinary Technician
Your Career in Veterinary Technology
Duties and Responsibilities
Resource Fourteen: Aquarium Careers Source: Monterey Bay Aquarium
Aquarium Careers features careers information. For each Staff Profiles, there is Educational Background and Skills Needed. The Staff Profiles include:
The Aquarium Careers web site answers the following questions:
What should I do now to prepare for a career in marine biology?
Where can I find a good college for marine biology?
What should be my college major?
How do I pick a graduate school?
I'm not sure of my area of interest. What should I do?
Marine Science Career Resources include information on:
Marine Advanced Technology Education
Marine Mammal Center, California
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California
Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station
State University of New York at Stony Brook
Resource Sixteen: Engineering The Stealth Profession Source: Discoverengineering.org
Engineering The Stealth Profession has a lot of information about engineers:
Types of Engineers
Resource Seventeen: Sea Grant Marine Careers Source: Marinecareers.net
Sea Grant Marine Careers gives you facts about marine career fields and to people working in those fields. Sea Grant Marine Careers outlines information on:
In each area, there is a detailed description of the type of the work that the scientists do. There are feature stories for different scientists in the career field.
The career profiles include information on:
What is your current job and what does it entail? What was the key factor in your career decision? What do you like most about your career? What do you like least about your career? What do you do to relax? Who are your heroes/heroines? What advice would you give a high school student who expressed an interest in pursuing a career in your field? Are career opportunities in your field increasing or decreasing and why? What will you be doing 10 years from today? What is the salary range?
Resource Eighteen: Do You Want to Become a Volcanologist? Source: Volcano World
Do You Want to Become a Volcanologist? provides the following descriptions:
The Word Volcanologist
Traits for success
Career web sites help you build awareness of the different aspects of careers: the tasks, wages, career outlook, interests, education, knowledge, and skills. We know that you will be fun exploring careers.
Copyright 2007 Dr. Mary Askew All Rights Reserved
The information from the Top Career Web Sites for Children and Teens comes from the Career Internet and Book Guidebook. The Guidebook is part of the Paint Careers With Colors System. The Paint Careers With Colors System is a visual learning technique for children that is a fast, quick, and easy way to introduce careers and Holland Codes.
Top Transferable Skills Web Sites
To be successful in the workplace, employees have to possess transferable skills. Knowing about these skills will help teens and adults prepare to be successful in the workplace. Transferable skills are a product of our talents, traits and knowledge. These skills determine how you respond to new activities, work situations or jobs.
Transferable skills are non-job specific skills that you have acquired during any activity or life experiences. Student activities and experiences include campus and community activities, class projects, and assignments, hobbies, athletic activities, internships and summer part-time jobs.
Transferable skills skills fall into three (3) groups: Working with people, working with things, and working with data/information. These terms are defined below:
Working with people skills happen when people sell, train, advise, and negotiate.
Working with things skills occur when people repair, operate machinery, sketch, survey, or troubleshoot.
Working with data/information skills involve budgeting, researching, and analyzing.
The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) is a model for transferable skills resources and web sites. In 1990, a commission of schools, government, unions, and corporations developed five SCAN competencies and three SCAN foundation skills. The five (5) Competencies are: Resources, information, interpersonal, systems, and technology.
The meanings of the competencies are:
Resources competencies describe the allocation of time, money, material resources, facility resources, and human resources.
Information competencies involve acquiring, evaluating, organizing, maintaining, interpreting, communicating and processing information.
Interpersonal competencies include team participation, teaching, customer services, leadership, negotiation, and cultural diversity.
Systems competencies work with understanding systems, performance monitoring, and systems designs.
Technology competencies involve the selection, application, maintenance, and troubleshooting of technology.
Besides competencies, there are three (3) Foundation Skills: Basic, thinking, and personal qualities. The terms are explained below.
Basic skills involve reading, writing, arithmetic, mathematics, listening, and speaking.
Thinking skills include creative thinking, decision making, problem solving, seeing things in the mind's eye, knowing how to learn, and reasoning.
Personal qualities are responsibility, self esteem, sociability, self-management, and integrity/honesty.
Universities and professional organizations, such as California State University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, Quintessential Careers, and the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) agree these transferable skills are important. These organizations have created transferable skills surveys, exercises, and web sites.
The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) is a professional association connects more than 5,200 college career services professionals at nearly 2,000 college and universities nationwide, and more than 3,000 HR/staffing professionals focused on college relations and recruiting. NACE has compiled the twenty (20) top personal qualities/skills that employers requested the most:
Interpersonal skills (relates well to others)
Leadership and management skills
Organizational and time management skills
Real Life Experiences
Strong work ethic
Teamwork skills (works well with others)
Communication skills are the most popular skills listed on the web sites. Communication deals with speaking effectively, writing concisely, listening attentively, and other abilities that result in the expression, transmission and interpretation of knowledge and ideas. Communication skills help you communicate what you know. Examples of communication skills include:
Selling ideas, products or services
Communication skills are involved in the other skills, such as organizational management, human relations, program administration, research & planning. Organization, management, leadership, and human relations skills are the ability to supervise, direct and guide individuals and groups in the completion of tasks and fulfillment of goals. Organization, management, leadership, and human relations skillsconsist of:
Assuming and delegating responsibility
Organizing people and tasks
Management and administrative skills organize and coordinate people, projects and events. As a manager, you handle multiple tasks, set priorities, and adapt to changing conditions and work assignments. As leaders, you use skills to motivate individuals and groups to assess, perform, set goals, evaluate, and follow through situations effectively.
Managers and leaders use human relations skills. Human relations, interpersonal, or people skills develop rapport, negotiate, and help people overcome their differences.
In addition to human relations skills, managers and leaders need planning and reasoning skills. Program administration, research and planning skills are essential when you gather information, analyze data, present ideas, and generate solutions.
Analyzing, planning, and reasoning skills are used in the field of research. Research skills help you search for specific knowledge, determine future needs, investigate and record findings, find answers, and evaluate strategies.
Besides planning and reasoning skills, problem solving and creativity activities involve the ability to find solutions to problems using experiences, information, and available resources. Problem solving and goal setting involve assessing a situation, gathering information, identifying key issues, anticipating problems, and generating multiple solutions.
Transferable skills are also called Soft Skills. Simon Fraser University, a leader in management education, lists the ten (10) Soft Skills:
There are surveys, activities, and exercises that help identify your transferable skills. An example of a transferable skills survey is the Transferable Skills Scale.
The Transferable Skills Scale is the only researched and validated assessment on the market focused on transferable skills. The Transferable Skills Scale is a short assessment that identifies an individual’s strongest transferable skills. The eight (8) Transferable Skills are:
Binghamton University, State University of New York, Career Development Center, LSG 500, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, New York, 13902-6000, 607-777-2400
Career Center California State University, Chico Chico, CA 95929-0700, (530) 898-5253
Career Center, Student Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Identify Transferable Skills Exercise. Career Development Services, A Division of Undergraduate Studies, Auburn University, 303 Mary Martin Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849, (334) 844:4744
Identifying Transferable Skills in Career Planning. William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627:0107
Identify Your Transferable Skills. Career Center University of South Carolina H. WILLIAM CLOSE (BA) BLDG., 6th FL., Columbia, SC 29208 • Phone: (803) 777-7280
Job Outlook 2007, What employers want (and you need to have), National Association of Colleges and Employers, 62 Highland Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18017-9085, 800/544-5272
Quintessential Careers, DeLand, FL 32720
Rochester Institute of Technology, Office of Cooperative Education and Career Services, 57 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623, 585.475.2301
Transferable Skills Checklist. Missouri State University, Career Center, Carrington 309, Glass 103, 901 S. National, Springfield, Missouri 65897, 877:836:JOBS
Transferable Skills Exercise. Wisconsin Job Center, 201 E. Washington Avenue, Madison WI 53702
Transferable Skills Guidebook. Simon Fraser University (SFU) BUSINESS, Career Management Centre, 2361, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5A 1S6
Transferable Skills Survey. Career Services, University of Minnesota Duluth, 22 Solon Campus Center, 1117 University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812:3000
University of Alabama Career Center, 330 Ferguson, Tuscaloosa, AL. 35487-0293, 205:348:5848
USC Career Planning & Placement Center, 3601 Trousdale Parkway, Student Union 110, Los Angeles, CA 90089:4897, (213) 740:9111
Copyright 2007 Dr. Mary Askew All Rights Reserved
United Arab Emirates(UAE) Report
Read a Fact-Filled Report about the United Arab Emirates(UAE) Ministry of Education.
Get strategies to create a new career education program.
See how your educational system differs from the Ministry of Education.
The United Arab Emirates is preparing youth for the future.
The United Arab Emirates Career Education Report is summary of the UAE educational system gathered from articles, reports, databases, and web sites. There are three major areas –
Part One: Facts about United Arab Emirates
Part Two: Strategies for Building a Career Education Program
Part Three: Powerpoint Presentation
Part One covers Facts about UAE. From authoritative sources, you will get the answers to the following questions -
What is the specific geographic communities to be served? What is the student population? What is the teacher/ student ratio? What is the agency that supervises the educational system in the United Arabic Emirates? What is the agency’s purpose, mission, and objectives? What is the structure of the Ministry of Education? What are the matching ages for each grade level? What is the certificate awarded at the end of the general secondary level? What are the three major streams (pathways) within the secondary level of the Ministry of Education? What are the objectives of the ADEC? What are the names of the five largest centers of learning found in the United Arab Emirates? What are the key industries in the UAE?
Part Two gives you the blueprint for a Career Education Program. After determining the program mission, goals, and objectives, you develop the Program Design. In Strategies for Building a Career Education Program, you will focus on the following areas -
Step One: Selecting the right career assessment test
Step Two: Utilizing existing career exploration resources
Articles by Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP and author: Top Secret Executive Resumes
EXECUTIVE RESUMES: TOP SECRETS FOR SUCCESS
By Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP and author: Top Secret Executive Resumes.
These days, many executives I meet downplay their resume as just a piece of paper that usually doesn't work. Maybe you've said to yourself, "My resume isn't perfect, but I'll explain myself in the interview".
But here's the catch: Even top-flight executives can have trouble writing a decent resume. They're not sure how to make the link between what they really want to DO in their next job with the needs of potential employers. An effective job hunt means having a complete, professional job search strategy, and your resume must be a key part of that strategy.
Here are some of the latest, Key Factors and philosophies I've used with great success over the past 15 years. They help explain why most (possibly yours) resumes fail, and how you can really stand above the crowd and get noticed.
First and Foremost: Tell Employers What They Really Want to Know! Look at the hiring process from the employer's point of view. There you are with a stack of resumes on your desk and a job to fill, right now. You've got some key requirements that candidates must meet before you'll even consider calling them in for an interview. All you want to know from each person "sitting" on your desk is: What can you do for me? How can you fill this job effectively? Why should I talk to you? So you start reading resumes and you see the same old stuff employers have been getting for decades: page after page of job descriptions, A.K.A. Chronological resumes.
But wait a minute. As an employer, I want to see what you can do for me, but all you're telling me is what you've done for someone else. Of course this is important, and I need to review your previous work experience and accomplishments. But does all this really apply to my situation? Of course not, and I really don't have time to read 10 or 20 years of your work history before I decide to call you in. This is why purely Chronological resumes, for the most part, are on the way out, and why the next Key Factor is so important:
Consistently Market Your Skills and Abilities Take a moment and really think about what this means. Does your current resume really market your most applicable skills and abilities, or is it a listing of your past? You must extract your most applicable skills and abilities from your past work experience and sell them at the very top of your resume in a summary section, titled PROFILE or EXPERIENCE.
I spoke with two top recruiters at Motorola headquarters in Schaumburg, IL. Billy Dexter is Manager of University Relations and Rodney Gee is a Manager of Staffing.
"We don't have much time to look at a resume, so it must have structure and consistency" said Dexter. "If a resume is too broad, we'll pass it over. Tell us about special projects, skill sets, computer languages, leadership activities, people or team-leading skills. If I have to search through a resume for these items, I probably won't read it." Your Summary gives you control over your resume, and lets you focus on these key points.
Remember that the Summary section in a Combination resume is not about previous jobs, but develops those skills and abilities you believe are most important and relevant to the position you're seeking right now. Your skills must be isolated and sold to the reader, this is the heart of a Combination resume format. It only works if you use clear, concise language describing tangible, no-nonsense skills: "Skilled in payroll processing, audits, and inventory control... "Effectively hire, train, and supervise staff in... "Plan and implement strategies for capital investment..." and so on.
"Pre-Digest" Your Information Most resumes get only a few short seconds to grab the reader's attention. Research the company's brochure, annual report and job advertisement, if any, and tailor your resume as much as possible to the position. A Chronological resume, no matter how well it's written, is still a listing of your past, and therefore not job-specific or future-oriented.
A resume that's only slightly more effective than the one you have now could help you get a job weeks, or even months faster than your old resume. Your resume is your life, your career on paper. Isn't it worth doing right?
For a free, confidential review of your career materials, send to Careers@EXECareers.net, or call 630-289-6222; Toll Free: 877-610-6810.
Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP, is a former executive recruiter and author of six career books including Top Secret Executive Resumes. He is President of an Executive Career Marketing and Coaching firm, ECS: Executive Career Services & DeskTop Publishing, Inc., specializing in individual career coaching, resume development/distribution through CPRWs, corporate outplacement, career marketing seminars, and executive networking. He has appeared numerous times on CNBC, CNN/fn, NBC-5 and ABC-7 in Chicago, on numerous radio programs and is endorsed by the Chicago Tribune.
Reprinted by permission of Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP, Top Secret Executive Resumes, 11/8/07
SECRETS of the EXECUTIVE CAREER SEARCH
By Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP Author: Top Secret Executive Resumes
Every day I talk to Fortune 500 Executives who can't get a grip on their overall job search. They ask the same questions: "Where should I start? Whom should I talk to? Should I just start calling recruiters?" Finding a job is a job in itself.
It starts on the inside: step back, do a gut check and take a holistic approach. Ask yourself:
1. Why consider a job search in the first place? 2. What's really going to make me happy on the job, 40-60 hours a week? 3. What trajectory do I want my career to take? 4. If I start a search, what are the first steps to take?
#1: Why consider a search? This is your key to success because it targets your motivation. In Rick Warren's The Purpose Driven Life (Zondervan) he says you need to get right with God. This cuts to the core of your spirit, your personal dream, and your overall satisfaction.
Is it all about money? (hint: that's almost never the case). A greater career challenge? Are you stressed out or just tired of your boss and the working conditions...or are YOU the boss and just bored with the industry, the company or the people around you?
Action: Write down a few keywords or sentences about your real motivation and level of commitment. How much time are you willing to spend creating a resume, learning & conducting internet research on target companies, calling them personally and doing personal networking? Will you keep track of your calls? How long can you be unemployed?
#2: The Satisfaction Factor At this very moment, what do you want to DO with your life? What are you lacking in your current position, and what's going to really satisfy you on the job, regardless of job title, industry, location or money? We hear "Life Is Short" all the time. Yet most of us are content to remain in our comfort zones. Only when that becomes unbearable do we reach out for advice and support.
For many, it's a chance to stand up and help others; you discover whole new challenges. You meet new people, create new relationships, and find greater value and substance to your days, and that's priceless.
#3: The Big Picture Take the long view; don't be afraid to dream and imagine greater possibilities, meeting new challenges, and making a positive difference in the lives of others. This is your trajectory.
Talk it over with your spouse, good friends you trust, your Pastor, or co-workers who can keep a secret. Don't rush this; take some time and sleep on it. Think out of the box. I built a career helping others with their careers, yet certainly never thought I'd write six books on resumes and career marketing.
#4: Strategy and Execution OK: So you've done some dreaming and pictured yourself in the ideal opportunity; how do you get there? Get online and search for job descriptions; talk to anyone even remotely related to the position or industry.
When you're sure about the skills you want to use, sidestep the fear and market your abilities. Track down the names and numbers of key players to contact and line up informational interviews to gain information about the job market, their company direction, their challenges and how you can help them. Such interviews can lead to job offers, it happens all the time.
Studies show only 5%-10% of jobs are filled through internet job sites and bulletin boards. Yet many executives, including those in our Career Workshop at Willow Creek Church, spend hours online seeking the perfect job. But Personal Networking is the single most effective approach to finding - even creating - the ideal opportunity. In fact, 60-70% of all positions are filled through Personal Networking: people who know people.
Real networks are created one call at a time, one person at a time. It can be slow and frustrating, but we see it work all the time. A good career coach can help you perfect the skill of calling companies and creating a 30-second snapshot of your best value and benefit.
Some Final Thoughts: A job search is a chance to assess where you are right now. We all know life is short, and no one else can make it meaningful for us. It's up to us to get right with God and move forward with greater confidence and determination. It's up to us to use our gifts to add greater impact and meaning to our lives and the lives of those around us.
Seize the day.
For a Free, confidential review of your career materials, send to Careers@Execareers.net or call 877-610-6810.
Steven Provenzano is a former corporate recruiter and author of six career books including Top Secret Executive Resumes. He is President of ECS: Executive Career Services & DTP, Inc., and has appeared on CNBC, CNN/fn, ABC/NBC in Chicago, on numerous radio programs and in various newspaper articles. He is a Certified Professional Resume Writer/CPRW, and Certified Employment Interview Professional/CEIP.
Reprinted by permission of Steven Provenzano, CPRW/CEIP, Top Secret Executive Resumes, 11/8/07
Articles From Recruiting Blogswap
What is the Volere Process?
Author Byline: Need Interview Questions? Author Website: http://www.boston-technical-recruiter.com
The Volere Requirements Process is a full lifecycle method for gathering project requirements.
Functional requirements are the fundamental or essential subject matter of the product.
Nonfunctional requirements are the properties that the functions must have, such as performance and usability.
Project constraints are restrictions on the product due to the budget or the time available to build the product.
Design constraints impose restrictions on how the product must be designed.
Managing RFC’s(Request for Change). If you can’t lock in your stakeholders to some basic delivery guidelines you could be headed for a requirements gathering nightmare.
Article courtesy of the Recruiting Blogswap, a content exchange service sponsored by CollegeRecruiter.com, a leading site for college students looking for internships and recent graduates searching for entry level jobs and other career opportunities.